Exploring Emptiness | 2.Small prefixes | 3. Semantic profiles | 4. Constructional profiles | 5. Prefix variation | 6. Aspectual triplets |

- Baayen, R. Harald. 2008.
*Analyzing Linguistic Data: A Practical Introduction to Statistics Using R.*Cambridge: Cambridge UP. - Gries, Stefan Th. 2009.
*Statistics for Linguistics with R.*Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. - Johnson, Keith. 2008.
*Quantitative Methods in Linguistics.*Blackwell: Malden, MA.

CORRECTION: In the original version, there was an error in the calculation of the Cramer’s V value. The actual value is somewhat lower, but still indicates a large effect size. Here is an R script that gives the correct value: Ch3Table1Correct.R.

expected value = (row sum x column sum) / total sum |

a = value in the given cell = 51 |
b = row total - value in the given cell = 106 - 51 = 55 |

c = column total - value in the given cell = 65 - 51 = 14 |
d = table total - value in the given cell - b - c = 382 - 51 - 55 - 14 = 262 |

When we insert these values into the Fisher test calculator on the website and click on compute, it returns the probabilities. Because a = 51 is greater than the expected value (which is only 18 according to the calculations above), we want to know the chances that a could be this large or larger given the overall distribution, so we calculate a right-sided value. The calculator lists this as “prob a >= 51” and gives us the value 2.946e-21. This is the probability that we could get 51 or more verbs in this cell, and is the same as the value that we report in Table 2 in Chapter 3. Below are all of the values needed to use the calculator for the combinations of prefixes and semantic tags, following the cells in Table 1 and indicating which probability (prob a <= x or prob a >= x) should be used, according to the relative sizes of the actual and expected values. You can use these to compute the Fisher test probabilities found in Table 2 of Chapter 3.

CORRECTION: In the original version, there was an error in the calculation of d in this table. This resulted in the incorrect calculation of Fisher test p-value. The table below gives the correct d and the next table shows the correct Fisher test p-values.

semantic tag | po- | s- | na- | za- | pro- |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

‘impact’ | a = 11, b = 111 c = 110, d = 150 prob a <= 11 | a = 23, b = 99 c = 43, d = 217 prob a >= 23 | a = 31, b = 91 c = 28, d = 232 prob a >= 31 | a = 47, b = 75 c = 24, d = 236 prob a >= 47 | a = 10, b = 112 c = 55, d = 205 prob a <= 10 |

‘changest’ | a = 62, b = 40 c = 59, d = 221 prob a >= 62 | a = 11, b = 91 c = 55, d = 225 prob a <= 11 | a = 3, b = 99 c = 56, d = 224 prob a <= 3 | a = 22, b = 80 c = 49, d = 231 prob a >= 22 | a = 4, b = 98 c = 61, d = 219 prob a <= 4 |

‘behav’ | a = 11, b = 41 c = 110, d = 220 prob a <= 11 | a = 23, b = 29 c = 43, d = 287 prob a >= 23 | a = 17, b = 35 c = 42, d = 288 prob a >= 17 | a = 1, b = 51 c = 70, d = 260 prob a <= 1 | a = 0, b = 52 c = 65, d = 265 prob a <= 0 |

‘sound’ &‘speech’ | a = 37, b = 69 c = 84, d = 192 prob a >= 37 | a = 9, b = 97 c = 57, d = 219 prob a <= 9 | a = 8, b = 98 c = 51, d = 225 prob a <= 8 | a = 1, b = 105 c = 70, d = 206 prob a <= 1 | a = 51, b = 55 c = 14, d = 262 prob a >= 51 |

semantic tag | po- | s- | na- | za- | pro- |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

‘impact’ | [-] 4e-12 | [+] 0.33 | [+] 0.0003 | [+] 3.7e-11 | [-] 0.0009 |

‘changest’ | [+] 6.3e-13 | [-] 0.03 | [-] 5.8e-06 | [+] 0.22 | [-] 6.3e-06 |

‘behav’ | [-] 0.052 | [+] 6.5e-07 | [+] 0.0006 | [-] 0.0001 | [-] 2.8e-05 |

‘sound’ &‘speech’ | [+] 0.23 | [-] 0.003 | [-] 0.005 | [-] 1.9e-10 | [+] 3e-21 |

Lemma | Gloss |
---|---|

pobagrovet’ | turn purple |

pobelet’ | turn white |

poblednet’ | turn pale |

pobleknut’ | lose color |

poburet’ | turn brown |

povzroslet’ | mature |

povlažnet’ | become damp |

poglupet’ | become stupid |

pogolubet’ | turn blue |

podeševet’ | become cheaper |

podlinnet’ | become longer |

podorožat’ | increase in price |

podurnet’ | grow ugly |

poželtet’ | turn yellow |

pozdorovet’ | turn recuperate |

pozelenet’ | turn green |

pozelenit’ | paint green |

pozlatit’sja | turn golden |

pozolotet’ | turn golden |

pokrasnet’ | turn red |

pokrupnet’ | grow larger |

polevet’ | shift leftward |

polegčat’ | lessen, abate |

polilovet’ | turn violet |

pomolodet’ | get younger-looking |

pomračnet’ | turn dark |

pomutnet’ | muddy |

pomjagčet’ | get soft |

poplotnet’ | grow stout; become dense |

popolnet’ | grow stout |

popravet’ | shift rightward |

poprostet’ | become unpretentious |

poredet’ | thin out |

porozovet’ | turn pink |

poryžet’ | turn reddish |

porjabet’ | get speckled |

posaxarit’ | sugar |

posvežet’ | freshen |

posedet’ | turn gray |

poseret’ | turn grizzly |

poser’eznet’ | become serious |

poseč’sja | tear |

posivet’ | turn gray |

posizet’ | turn blue-gray |

posinet’ | turn dark blue |

posmirnet’ | become quiet |

posmuglet’ | turn swarthy |

pospet’ | ripen |

posurovet’ | become severe |

poteplet’ | get warmer |

potončat’ | become thin |

potreskat’sja | split |

potusknet’ | turn dim |

potusknut’ | turn dim |

poumnet’ | grow wiser |

poxolodet’ | cool down |

poxolodnet’ | cool down |

poxorošet’ | grow prettier |

poxrabret’ | become braver |

poxudat’ | get slimmer |

poxudet’ | get slimmer |

počernet’ | turn black |

Lemma | Gloss |
---|---|

poblagodarit’ | thank |

pobožit’sja | swear |

povinit’sja | confess |

povorožit’ | tell fortunes |

pogutorit’ | chat |

požalit’sja | complain |

požalobit’sja | complain |

požalovat’sja | complain |

pozvat’ | call |

pozvonit’sja | ring |

pozdorovat’sja | say hello |

pointeresovat’sja | be curious about |

pokljast’sja | swear |

polajat’sja | bark |

pomolit’sja | pray |

poobeščat’ | promise |

poobeščat’sja | promise |

popenjat’ | blame |

poprivetstvovat’ | welcome |

poprosit’ | request |

poprosit’sja | ask for |

poručit’sja | guarantee |

posetovat’ | complain |

posmejat’sja | laugh |

posovetovat’sja | get advice |

posporit’ | argue |

posulit’ | promise |

posulit’sja | promise |

potoropit’ | hurry |

potrebovat’ | require |

poxvalit’ | praise |

poxvalit’sja | boast |

poxvastat’ | brag |

poxvastat’sja | brag |

poxodatajstvovat’ | intercede |

pocapat’sja | bicker |

pošutit’ | make a joke |

Lemma | Gloss |
---|---|

podelikatničat’ | be soft on smby. |

požadničat’ | act greedy |

pokuražit’sja | swagger |

polenit’sja | act lazy |

poostorožničat’ | be over-cautious |

poskupit’sja | scrimp |

poslušat’sja | obey |

postesnjat’sja | be shy |

potešit’sja | amuse |

poxlopotat’ | hustle about |

poceremonit’sja | stand on ceremony |

Lemma | Gloss |
---|---|

pobrit’ | shave |

pobrit’sja | shave |

podoit’ | milk |

podrat’sja | fight |

pokolotit’ | wallop |

pokorobit’ | warp |

pokryt’ | cover |

pokusat’ | bite |

počesat’sja | scratch oneself |

poščekotat’ | tickle |

poščupat’ | touch, feel |

Lemma | Gloss |
---|---|

svelikodušničat’ | do something generous |

sglupit’ | do something stupid |

sdvurušničat’ | be a double-dealer |

s”exidničat’ | speak maliciously |

sžulit’ | cheat |

sžul’ničat’ | cheat |

slevačit’ | work on the side |

sliberal’ničat’ | play the liberal |

slovčit’ | dodge |

slukavit’ | be cunning |

smalodušestvovat’ | act like a coward (once) |

smalodušničat’ | act like a coward (once) |

smošenničat’ | cheat |

smuxlevat’ | swindle |

snaxal’ničat’ | be impudent |

sobez’janničat’ | ape |

sozorničat’ | play tricks |

soriginal’ničat’ | do something original |

spodličat’ | act meanly |

sprovocirovat’ | provoke |

sxalturit’ | do something carelessly |

sximičit’ | contrive |

sxitrit’ | do something clever |

Lemma | Gloss |
---|---|

sbrošjurovat’ | stitch up |

svarganit’ | knock off |

svarit’ | cook |

svit’ | twist; weave |

svjazat’ | tie, knit |

sdelat’ | make, do |

sžat’ | reap |

sžeč’ | burn down |

skomkat’ | crumple |

skopnit’ | stook |

skulemat’ | crumple |

smasterit’ | craft, build |

smontirovat’ | mount |

sostrjapat’ | cook |

srabotat’ | work out |

sravnjat’ | even out |

srubit’ | chop down |

ssučit’ | twist |

strenožit’ | hobble |

sfabrikovat’ | fabricate |

sfal’cevat’ | fold |

sfugovat’ | joint |

sšit’ | sew |

Lemma | Gloss |
---|---|

sagitirovat’ | campaign for |

skalamburit’ | make a pun |

skomandovat’ | command |

sorientirovat’ | orient |

sostrit’ | make a witty remark |

srifmovat’ | make a rhyme |

storgovat’sja | strike a bargain |

sformulirovat’ | formulate |

s”jazvit’ | say sth sarcastic |

Lemma | Gloss |
---|---|

svarit’sja | get cooked |

sgnit’ | rot |

sgnoit’ | let rot |

sžat’sja | shrink |

skondensirovat’ | condense |

skosobočit’sja | get lopsided |

smjagčit’ | make softer |

sostarit’ | age |

sostarit’sja | age |

stvorožit’ | curdle |

stvorožit’sja | curdle |

Lemma | Gloss |
---|---|

nabelit’sja | whiten |

nabronzirovat’ | bronze |

navaksit’ | polish (shoe) |

navorsit’ | tease (fibers) |

navorsovat’ | tease (fibers) |

navoščit’ | wax |

nagljancevat’ | glaze |

nagofrirovat’ | crimp |

nakanifolit’ | apply rosin |

nakostyljat’ | give a good drubbing |

nakraxmalit’ | starch |

namalevat’sja | paint (ones face) |

namelit’ | chalk |

namylit’ | soap |

namylit’sja | soap (oneself) |

naodekolonit’ | sprinkle with cologne |

naoxrit’ | apply ochre |

napičkat’ | force-feed |

naploit’ | quill |

napomadit’ | pomade |

napomadit’sja | pomade oneself |

napryskat’ | sprinkle |

nasandalit’ | apply sandalwood |

nasur’mit’ | cover with surma |

nasur’mit’sja | paint onself with dye |

nafabrit’ | stain (mustaches) |

nafabrit’sja | stain (mustaches) |

naxoxlit’ | ruffle up |

našinkovat’ | shred |

našpigovat’ | apply lard |

namozolit’ | work until one has callouses |

Lemma | Gloss |
---|---|

nabedokurit’ | get into mischief |

nabezobrazničat’ | behave disgracefully |

nabuzit’ | make a row |

nagrubijanit’ | be rude |

nadeboširit’ | kick up a row |

naerundit’ | play the fool |

nakaverzit’ | make tricks |

nakaverzničat’ | make tricks |

nakurolesit’ | play tricks |

naplevat’ | spit |

naprokazit’ | play pranks |

naprokazničat’ | play pranks |

napyžit’sja | puff up |

nasvinjačit’ | make a dirty act |

naxuliganit’ | behave like a hooligan |

Lemma | Gloss |
---|---|

nagrubit’ | be rude |

naderzit’ | be fresh with smb. |

naklevetat’ | gossip |

nakljauzničat’ | libel |

naproročit’ | prophesize |

naspletničat’ | gossip |

naxamit’ | be rude |

najabedničat’ | snitch |

Lemma | Gloss |
---|---|

nadymit’ | fill with smoke |

naxolodit’ | cool |

naèlektrizovat’ | electrify |

Lemma | Gloss |
---|---|

zaasfal’tirovat’ | cover with asphalt |

zaballastirovat’ | load with ballast |

zabarrikadirovat’ | barricade |

zabarrikadirovat’sja | barricade oneself |

zabetonirovat’ | concrete |

zabintovat’ | bandage |

zabodat’ | gore |

zabronirovat’ | reserve |

zabutit’ | fill with rubble |

zavualirovat’ | veil |

zagatit’ | make a brushwood road |

zagipsovat’ | cover with gypsum |

zagudronirovat’ | cover road with tar |

zadekorirovat’ | decorate |

zadrapirovat’ | drape |

zadrapirovat’sja | drape |

zazubrit’sja | get notched |

zakamuflirovat’ | camouflage |

zakonservirovat’ | preserve |

zakrepit’ | fasten |

zakristallizovat’ | crystallize |

zalatat’ | patch |

zamarkirovat’ | mark |

zamaskirovat’ | mask |

zamaskirovat’sja | mask |

zamesit’ | knead |

zaminirovat’ | mine |

zamordovat’ | victimize |

zamusolit’ | slobber all over |

zamyzgat’ | make filthy |

zaplatat’ | patch |

zaprudit’ | dam up |

zapjatnat’ | soil |

zasilosovat’ | store in a silo |

zaskirdovat’ | mow up |

zasuslit’ | slobber all over |

zasusolit’ | slobber all over, suck |

zatavrit’ | brand |

zatorcevat’ | trim |

zatuševat’ | shade |

zatjukovat’ | pack in bales |

zaxloroformirovat’ | chloroform |

zašnurovat’sja | lace up |

zašpaklevat’ | putty |

zašpuntovat’ | groove |

zaštopat’ | darn |

zaštukovat’ | mend |

Lemma | Gloss |
---|---|

zavšivet’ | become lousy |

zagrjaznit’ | make dirty |

zagrjaznit’sja | get dirty |

zagustet’ | thicken |

zaindevet’ | get covered with frost |

zakonspirirovat’ | make secret |

zakosnet’ | stagnate |

zalubenet’ | harden |

zamarinovat’ | marinate |

zamerznut’ | freeze |

zamuslit’sja | get covered with slobber |

zamusolit’sja | get covered with slobber |

zaplesnevet’ | become moldy |

zapylit’sja | get covered with dust |

zarubcevat’sja | get covered with a scar |

zastudenet’ | become jellied |

zatverdet’ | harden |

zatravenet’ | get covered with grass |

zaxilet’ | become sickly |

zaxiret’ | fall into decay |

začaxnut’ | wither |

zašeršavet’ | become rough |

Lemma | Gloss |
---|---|

zadurit’ | become unreasonable |

Lemma | Gloss |
---|---|

zakontraktovat’ | make a contract |

Lemma | Gloss |
---|---|

probasit’ | talk in a deep voice |

probormotat’ | mutter |

probrenčat’ | jingle |

probrexat’ | yelp, bark |

probrjuzžat’ | grumble |

probrjacat’ | clank |

probubnit’ | mutter |

proburčat’ | grumble |

provereščat’ | squeal |

proveščat’ | prophesy |

progavkat’ | bark |

progogotat’ | cackle |

progremet’ | thunder |

progromyxat’ | rumble |

progroxotat’ | crash, rumble |

progudet’ | buzz |

prodeklamirovat’ | recite |

prodiktovat’ | dictate |

prozvenet’ | ring |

prozvučat’ | sound, be heard |

proinstruktirovat’ | instruct |

prointerv’juirovat’ | interview |

proinformirovat’ | inform |

prokvakat’ | croak |

prokommentirovat’ | comment |

prokonsul’tirovat’ | offer consultation |

prokonsul’tirovat’sja | consult |

prokričat’ | yell |

prokukarekat’ | crow |

prokukovat’ | cuckoo |

prolajat’ | bark |

prolepetat’ | babble |

prolopotat’ | splutter |

promurlykat’ | purr |

promyčat’ | moo |

promjamlit’ | hum and haw |

promjaukat’ | meow |

propesočit’ | criticize |

prosvistet’ | whistle |

prosignalit’ | signal |

prosklonjat’ | decline; bandy about |

prosprjagat’ | conjugate |

protelegrafirovat’ | telegraph |

protelefonirovat’ | telephone |

protjavkat’ | yelp |

prourčat’ | rumble |

proxripet’ | wheeze |

procitirovat’ | quote |

prošeptat’ | whisper |

proèkzamenovat’ | examine |

proèkzamenovat’sja | be examined |

Lemma | Gloss |
---|---|

proburavit’ | bore, drill |

proburit’ | bore, drill |

proventilirovat’ | ventilate |

provejat’ | winnow |

prodezinficirovat’ | apply disinfectant |

prodiskovat’ | break up soil with a disk-shaped harrow |

proizvestkovat’ | apply lime (soil) |

promotyžit’ | hoe |

prosverlit’ | drill, perforate |

protaranit’ | ram |

Lemma | Gloss |
---|---|

progorknut’ | become bitter |

propitat’sja | become saturated |

proxudit’sja | get worn out |

projasnet’ | clear up |